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Eye Surgery

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The eye surgery (cataractsretinal diseasesglaucomacorneal diseases) department at Paideia International Hospital guarantees patients a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and continuously updated response.

Eye diseases treated by the Paideia Eye Surgery department

Cataracts

The surgical technique for cataracts is phacoemulsification, which consists of fragmentation and aspiration of the opacified crystalline lens, using an ultrasound handpiece. After all the deposits have been removed, an artificial lens is then implanted, allowing the patient to see again properly after the operation.

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Retinal detachment

Treatment for retinal detachment is preventive in cases where there are ruptures or areas where the retinal tissue has thinned; in such circumstances, laser treatment can prevent the onset of subsequent retinal detachment (RD).

The treatment of RD, once it is has been diagnosed, is always surgical; in certain cases it is useful to perform an adjuvant treatment to strengthen the affected areas intra- or post-operatively. Currently, there are different surgical techniques for RD, depending on the case, the indications and the surgeon’s choice: among these, the most widely used are the ab externo technique (cerclage and/or scleral sealing associated or not with cryotherapy and pneumatic retinopexy with gas, indicated especially in cases of rhegmatogenous RD) and the ab interno technique (pars plan vitrectomy, indicated especially in cases of tractional RD).

In the latter technique, silicone oil tamponade is often used; however, it is not re-absorbable and must be removed by further surgery.

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Trapianto di cornea

The main indications for corneal transplantation are diseases that cause a loss of transparency in the cornea (e.g. corneal decompensation, corneal dystrophies and corneal scarring as a result of trauma or herpetic, bacterial or fungal infections) or lead to changes in the curvature of the cornea (e.g. keratoconus, corneal ectasia disorders after refractive surgery).

There is no age limit for corneal transplantation; the procedure can be performed in both young and old patients. Transplantation can improve eyesight depending on the patient’s medical history and pre-existing conditions.

Corneal transplantation may consist of replacing the full-thickness cornea (penetrating keratoplasty) or only the diseased part of the cornea (lamellar keratoplasty). Today, anterior or posterior lamellar keratoplasty operations, i.e. involving the specific replacement of only the anterior or posterior part of the cornea, are becoming increasingly common, depending on the different conditions affecting the eye and the surgical requirements, offering patients faster post-operative recovery and exposing them to fewer intra-operative risks due to the less invasive nature of the surgery itself.

In the case of corneal endothelial dysfunction secondary to surgery or corneal dystrophies (Fuchs’ dystrophy and posterior polymorphous dystrophy), an endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK or DMEK technique) can be performed, replacing only the diseased endothelium (inner part) and preserving the rest of the cornea.

The procedure is carried out through small incisions in the cornea that in some cases do not require sutures with much faster recovery of sight compared to perforated cornea transplants.

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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

Preventive treatment: clinical studies, in particular the AREDS (Age-Related Eye Disease Study), have demonstrated the effectiveness of using high doses of vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene and zinc in reducing the risk of progression to the advanced form in patients with early AMD.

Anti-angiogenic treatment: the exudation is treated with intravitreal injections of drugs that act by inhibiting the vascular endothelium growth factor (anti VEGF), which is found to cause the development of new vessels.

To date, available treatments focus on treating the exudation, but numerous studies are researching the effectiveness of drugs for treating atrophy.

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