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Otorhinolaryngology (ENT)

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Paideia International Hospital has highly-qualified otolaryngologists, or ENT specialists, who treat earnose and throat conditions, from examination to the management and treatment of the most serious conditions requiring hospitalisation and possible surgery. For head and neck conditions, themultidisciplinary approach ensures an efficient and a comprehensive study of the patient’s problem. Paideia International Hospital is equipped with the latest technology to support physicians in delivering the best services of prevention and diagnosis.

Otorhinolaryngology, the main conditions treated:

Nose and sinus disorders

Sensation of nasal obstruction, may be experienced on only one side of the nose, sometimes both. There are three common explanations for this problem:

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Treatments

Sometimes it is best to manage the symptoms with systemic or topical medical treatment, which helps reduce swelling inside the nose.

Deviation of the nasal septum. When merely managing symptoms is not enough, a septoplastyis recommended, using up-to-date techniques and a tamponade with “open” devices, best splint, which allows the flow of air through the nasal passages.

Turbinate hypertrophy. In some cases, surgery(turbinoplasty) is recommended to reduce the size of the turbinates, performed using a minimally invasive technique, under endoscopic vision, under local anaesthesia without tamponade using current technology (Radiofrequency-Coblation-Macan) in a day-hospital setting.

Sinonasal Polyposis. Endoscopic sinus surgery is usually performed using a video-assisted procedure. It does not involve cutting the skin, because it is performed entirely through the nostrils.  

Selected sinusitis. Balloon Sinuplasty, a minimally invasive technique, is used to treat chronic, recurrent sinusitis or sinus infections when medical treatment has not provided sufficient relief. During this procedure, surgeons use a small balloon, inserted through the nose, to dilate the sinus openings. People eligible for balloon sinuplasty include those who do not have nasal polyps or tumours.

Voice disorders

People develop vocal problems for many reasons. Physicians specialising in ear, nose and throat disorders and speech pathology specialists help to diagnose and treat voice disorders. Treatment depends on what is causing the voice disorder, but may include rehabilitation therapy (speech therapy), medication or surgery.

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Treatments

Microlaryngoscopy to remove non-cancerous lesions (polyps and cysts) on the vocal cords. The physician can remove non-cancerous, pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions, including recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, white spots (leukoplakia), using microsurgery, state-of-the-art digital microscopes, and also laser surgery where indicated.

Sleep disorders

Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder. It causes the sufferer to stop breathing repeatedly while sleeping. There are several types of sleep apnoea, but the most common is obstructive sleep apnoea syndrom (OSAS). This type of apnoea occurs when the oropharyngeal throat muscles relax intermittently during sleep and block the airway. An obvious sign of obstructive sleep apnoea is snoring.

Obstructive sleep apnoea is considered a serious medical condition.

Complications may include:

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Treatments

The approach to managing and treating patients with OSAS is multidisciplinary, with a team of specialists caring for all aspects of the patient’s condition.

The main examinations are:

Polysomnography. During this sleep study, the patient is connected to equipment that monitors heart, lung and brain activity, breathing patterns, arm and leg movements and blood oxygen levels during sleep.

Sleep Endoscopy. Procedure to assess the oropharyngeal anatomical sites that result in partial or total obstruction of airflow.

Medical treatment for central sleep apnoea with a central positive airway pressure (CPAP) device or similar machines. Oral devices that push air through the airway at the base of the tongue and pharynx.

Surgical treatment in patients diagnosed with obstructive apnoea caused by anatomical alterations that can be corrected surgically.

Ear diseases

Hearing loss normally occurs gradually with age and when it is unrelated to biological age, it is necessary to investigate the causes.

There are three causes of hearing loss: conductive, sensorineural, mixed.

Signs and symptoms of hearing loss may include:

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Treatments

Medicine: indicated for infections of the ear, often the middle ear, a virtual air-filled space behind the eardrum that contains the ear’s tiny vibrating bones.

Surgery: involves operations to manage and solve problems in the ear, from the tympanic membrane, to the ossicular-chain (hammer, anvil and stirrup), to the bone or mastoid bone. There are two major groups of surgeries: middle ear surgery, which includes surgery of the ossicular chain and mastoidectomy involving the bone; and reparative surgery of the tympanic membrane.

At Paideia International Hospital, operations are performed by our professionals using both electron microscope and endoscopy.

Pathology of the major salivary glands

We have three main pairs of salivary glands: parotid, sublingual and submandibular. Many problems can interfere with the function of the salivary glands or block the ducts so that they cannot drain saliva. Modern digital and traditional radiology enables rapid diagnosis and planning of appropriate treatment.

The most common salivary gland problems include:

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Treatments

Medicine: bacterial infections are treated with antibiotics, NSAIDs, bromelain supplements and local manipulation to restore proper saliva flow.  

Surgery: there are different types of salivary gland surgery, depending on the gland and the problem. A partial or complete removal of the parotid gland is called a parotidectomy. The removal of the submandibular gland is called a submandibular gland excision . A newer, minimally invasive treatment of salivary stones and recurrent infections of the parotid or submandibular glands is called a Sialendoscopy.

Precancerous lesions of the oral cavity

Oral cancer accounts for about 3% of all malignant tumours and is a major health problem worldwide. Most oral malignancies occur as squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs); despite significant advances in treatment methods, the 5-year survival rate has not improved significantly in recent decades and still hovers around 50-60%. Many squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity develop from premalignant conditions. A wide range of conditions have been implicated in the development of oral cancer, including leukoplakia, erythroplakia, palatal lesion from reverse cigar smoking, oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis, discoid lupus erythematosus, and hereditary disorders such as dyskeratosis congenita and epidermolysis bullosa.

Management strategies for patients with precancerous lesions of the oral cavityfall into three categories: close observation, surgical removal and ablation, and medical treatments. The mainstay of therapy is observation through frequent clinical examinations. The frequency of examinations must be adapted to the patient’s individual factors such as the clinical appearance and stage of the lesion.

It is recommended to refer to a medical professional to decide the best screening programme for the prevention of oral cancer.

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